"The good composed of all goods; an ability which suffices for living well; perfection in respect of virtue; resources sufficient for a living creature."
eu (good) daimonia (spirit)
Excellence, Nobility. Same root as Aristocracy.
Let the discovery we made be now applied to the individual---if they agree, we shall be satisfied; or, if there be a difference in the individual, we will come back to the State... The friction of the two when rubbed together may possibly strike a light in which justice will shine forth.
It won't be assumed that the structure of the soul mirrors the structure of the city
the same thing cannot act or be acted upon in the same part or in relation to the same thing at the same time, in contrary ways.
Assent and Dissent are our contrary acts.
Principle of Desire, Principle of Reason
One might be thirsty, but not wish to drink.
Principle of Emotion, Principle of Desire
Anger at war with Desire.
Anger at war with Reason?
Anger, unlike desire, generally submits to reason.
And when we judge ourselves, anger sides with reason.
Anger, however, can occur in the absence of reason.
Analogy lets us talk about the soul.
Show how Justice is desirable without a view to rewards
Seemed almost impossible.
Solution: Find problems with the idea of "your interests"
What's good for you is what's good for you as a whole, and may have little to do with getting what "you" "want".
We should understand benefit not on the model of desire satisfaction, but of health.
Justice is health of the soul. Injustice is a kind of spiritual disease, or madness.
1,2 are well worth reading.
Possible Reply to 1.
We shouldn't give much weight to present custom, or to what currently seems ridiculous.
Weigh the beautiful by any other standard than the good.
Men and women have different natures, and are suited for different roles
Response: we need to know how their natures differ.
Follow up: There's almost no pursuit where every woman exceeds every man or vice versa.
Scary eugenic program.
This is no objection. We're trying to see what an ideal state would be like, not how to construct such a state.
And, furthermore, we can at least think of conditions under which an ideal state would come to be.
Until Philosophers are Kings, or the kings and princes of the world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils... then only will our State have a possibility of life and behold the light of day
Think here of what happened to Socrates.
Plato's argument feels different when you imagine that he want to put his murdered friend, not himself, on the throne.
Let's start from definitions.
What is a philosopher?
The starting point---those who desire to know.
If curiosity makes a philosopher, you will find many a strange being who will have a title to the name.
Challenge: This definition is not extensionally adequate.
Reply: let's be more specific about "know"
Therefore, opinion is neither about what is, nor what is not.
Opinion concerns what neither altogether is one thing (beautiful, just, good, holy, equal, round, square...) nor altogether not.
Claim: which is pretty much everything.
The curious are those who love this kind of opinion.
The lovers of wisdom are those who want knowledge of what is: the pure instances, or templates, or forms of various things
Now that we've got a definition, why let them rule?
those who are verily and indeed wanting in the knowledge of the true being of each thing... [who] are unable as with a painters eye to look at the absolute truth and to that original to repair... and order the laws about beauty, goodness, justice... are not such persons, I ask, simply blind?
The captain of the mutiny?
Or the pilot?
Why does the knowledge of the guardians qualify them for rule, and make them analogous to the pilot? They're not technical experts, like the cobbler or the shipbuilder.
What, in more detail, is the sort of thing that the guardians will know?