Died 323BC, at the peak of his empire. 33 years old.
Diffusion of Greek Culture throughout modern-day Iran and North Africa.
Founding of Greek Cities, e.g. Alexandria, rather than "child colonies".
Emergence of a "common tongue", Koine Greek
Epicurus: "The Garden" (κῆπος) 306 BC
Zeno of Citium: "The Porch" (ἡ ποικίλη στοά) 301 BC
Arcesilaus: Academy, 264 BC
The Chief Good: Pleasure
The Chief Evil: Pain
Even animals seek for pleasure, and recoil from pain.
Hence, the "unperverted" guidance of nature is to do the same.
Hence, Pleasure is intrinsically desirable.
One can "perceive" the intrinsic desirability of pleasure, in the same way that one can perceive other evident facts.
The senses are the ultimate guide to truth.
Therefore, pleasure is intrinsically desirable.
Don't people (and animals) often do painful things?
Yes, but (if they do it rationally) only in service of their own long-term pleasure.
Well, we're going to need here to think a bit about what pleasure is.
The third class are unsatisfiable.
The highest form of pleasure is tranquility, the absence of any form of pain.
The third class of desires always bring pain.
Hence, pursuit of pleasure requires us to minimize them.
The life of pleasure is self-sufficient, because it involves eliminating all desires except those that are natural and unaccompanied by pain.
warrants a neverending supply of the things that uncorrupted nature really needs
Helps us moderate dangerous desires, and leads to tranquility
Wisdom and Courage free us from fear, and wisdom frees us from desires of the third class.
Isn't death (not dying, but death) something to be feared, even when not accompanied by pain?
A strong and lofty spirit is entirely free from anxiety and sorrow. It makes light of death, for the dead are only as they were before they were born
Death is not a harm