Ionia Laconia Attica

City-States

Ionia

here

And Miletus

Laconia

here

And Sparta

Attica

here

And Athens

The Ionian Philosophers

Significance

  • Argument Replaces Myth.
  • The universe is governed by general principles.

Thales (620-546 BC)

  • Idea of Proof (Thales' Theorem)

  • Physical Explanation of Phenomena

Others

  • Naturalists
    • Milesian school: Anaximiander, Anaximenes, poss. Anaxagoras,
    • Pythagoreans, Heraclitus, Xenophenes, Empedocles, Atomists, Eleatics (inc. Zeno of Elea)
  • Sophists (inc. Progagoras)

Sparta

Lycurgus

  • Semi-mythical figure. Rose to power in Sparta during period of unrest.

Spartan State

  • Citizenship almost always requires heredity, but not automatic.
  • Male agoge, beginning at 7. Dining Hall at 20. Family at 30.

  • Laws to discourage wealth (division of property, syssitia dining, prohibition on trade and craft, iron currency)

Athens

Democracy, Persian Wars

  • Solon (democracy), Peisistreids (tyrants 546-510), Cleisthenes (democracy)

  • Ionianian Revolt (499-493)

  • Persian Invasions(490,480). Marathon (490), Thermopylae (480), Salamis. Athenians emerge as leaders of the Delian League.

Pericles

  • Elected leader of Athens, 445-429BC.

  • Populist (laws favoring Athenian poor)

Aspasia

  • Wife of Pericles, friend of Protagoras, Anaxagoras, Zeno.

  • Hetaera, advised Pericles

Peloponesian Wars Begin (433 BC)

  • Gradual consolidation of power in Athens. Inner wall.

  • Frivolous Embargo against Megaria leads to Spartan ultimatum.

  • War

First Peloponesian War Ends

  • 431 Pericles evacuates Attica to Athens. Funeral Oration.

  • 430 Plague. 429, Kills Pericles.

Aftermath

  • Invasion of Melos, 416
  • Total defeat, after executing their own naval leaders, by starvation and siege, 404

  • Rule of thirty Tyrants. Restoration of Democracy in 403.

Socrates' Involvement

  • Fought under Pericles

  • Criticized execution of naval leaders

  • Refused to carry out executions under the tyrants

  • Was a friend and a teacher of Critias, Alcibiades

Plato's Involvement

  • Born a few years before the plague.

  • Nephew of one of the tyrants Charmides, more distant relation of Critias

  • Friend of Socrates.

Reading:

  • Melian Dialogue
  • Funary Oration of Pericles
  • Kenny, p9-29