Can't be a mere hypothesis. Needs to be justified. How?
Problem of the Criterion
Assent is an essential part of action.
We must assent to "ϕ is to be done", before we ϕ.
How can a skeptic act?
Well, animals act, presumably without the kind of rational reflection that stoics want to engage in before assent.
Cicero: "Arcesilaus robs people of their minds".
We don't believe things. We just take them to be "pithanon"---probable, plausible, persuasive---and use that to get through the day
Challenge: Don't you at least believe that the stuff you're acting on is probable?
Reply: We "approve" of it. We don't believe it.
Well, Carneades' followers also found this confusing. Some interpretations:
Seems like the skeptical arguments kind of undermine (2) and (3)...
After Alexander's Death, his territory fell apart into Ptolemaic Egypt (Capital: Alexandria), The Seleucid Empire, and Macedon---and lost its hold on Athens.
City states of central Greece fell into war and squabbing.
All the while, to the west, a new power was on the rise...
150BC: Rome subdues Greece (Archean war)
Props/Annexes up Ptolemaic Egypt. (Battle of Actium, 31 BC)
Adaptation of Greek Philosophy.
Power-grab by Julius Caesar (Actively opposed by Cicero), resulting ultimately in Caesar's son, Gaius Octavius, aka Augustus, becoming Emperor.
Emperors are interested to greater and lesser degrees in philosophy.
Philosophers, (in particular, Stoics), remain active in political life of the empire
Seneca, advisor to Nero.
Epictetus, influence on Marcus Aurelius, Stoic Emperor.