This sorting is based on the metal in your soul
You're encouraged to think of the state as your parent
Additive Quality or Structural Property?
To be Resolved
Resides in the knowledge of "of the whole"---how the activities that the rest of the kinds of knowledge deal with are to be coordinated.
Hence, in the guardians
Resides in the Auxiliaries, since their courage determines the conduct of the state at war---more specifically, their ability to adhere to the laws of the State in any circumstances
Self-Mastery: a puzzle.
Solution: Multiple principles in one person.
Temperance consists in the rule of the better part over the worse. Doesn't reside in one part.
Each person doing their own work and not being a busybody
Well, more specifically, each of the castes doing their jobs
"The good composed of all goods; an ability which suffices for living well; perfection in respect of virtue; resources sufficient for a living creature."
eu (good) daimonia (spirit)
Excellence, Nobility. Same root as Aristocracy.
Let the discovery we made be now applied to the individual---if they agree, we shall be satisfied; or, if there be a difference in the individual, we will come back to the State... The friction of the two when rubbed together may possibly strike a light in which justice will shine forth.
It won't be assumed that the structure of the soul mirrors the structure of the city
the same thing cannot act or be acted upon in the same part or in relation to the same thing at the same time, in contrary ways.
Assent and Dissent are our contrary acts.
Principle of Desire, Principle of Reason
One might be thirsty, but not wish to drink.
Principle of Emotion, Principle of Desire
Anger at war with Desire.
Anger at war with Reason?
Anger, unlike desire, generally submits to reason.
And when we judge ourselves, anger sides with reason.
Anger, however, can occur in the absence of reason.
Analogy lets us talk about the soul.
Show how Justice is desirable without a view to rewards
Seemed almost impossible.
Solution: Find problems with the idea of "your interests"
What's good for you is what's good for you as a whole, and may have little to do with getting what "you" "want".
We should understand benefit not on the model of desire satisfaction, but of health.
Justice is health of the soul. Injustice is a kind of spiritual disease, or madness.
1,2 are well worth reading.
Possible Reply to 1.
But let's focus on 3.
Replies: 1. This is no objection. We're trying to see what an ideal state would be like, not how to construct such a state.